|Record 1 of 8 in SilverPlatter MEDLINE(R) (2001/01-2001/10)
TI: Recurrent urinary tract infection in women.
SO: Int-J-Antimicrob-Agents. 2001 Apr; 17(4): 259-68
AB: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are common among young healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal urinary tracts. Women with recurrent UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens, which is due to a greater propensity for uropathogenic coliforms to adhere to uroepithelial cells. Risk factors for recurrent UTI include sexual intercourse, use of spermicidal products, having a first UTI at an early age, and having a maternal history of UTIs. Inherited factors may be important in some women with recurrent UTI. Many factors thought to predispose to recurrent UTI in women, such as pre- and post-coital voiding patterns, frequency of urination, wiping patterns, and douching have not been proven to be risk factors for UTI. In contrast to the predominantly behavioral risk factors for young women, mechanical and/or physiological factors that affect bladder emptying are most strongly associated with recurrent UTI in healthy postmenopausal women. The management of recurrent UTI is the same as that for sporadic UTI except that the likelihood of infection with an antibiotic resistant uropathogen is higher in women who have received recent antimicrobials. Strategies to prevent recurrent UTI in young women should include education about the association of recurrent UTI with frequency of sexual intercourse and the usage of spermicide-containing products. Continuous or post-coital prophylaxis with low-dose antimicrobials or intermittent self-treatment with antimicrobials have all been demonstrated to be effective in managing recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in women. Estrogen use is very effective in preventing recurrent UTI in post-menopausal women. Exciting new approaches to prevent recurrent UTI include the use of probiotics and vaccines. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of UTI will lead to more effective and safer methods to prevent these frequent infections.
Record 2 of 8 in SilverPlatter MEDLINE(R) (2001/01-2001/10)
TI: Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection.
SO: Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 2001 Feb; 73(2 Suppl): 437S-443S
AB: The urogenital microflora of a healthy woman comprises approximately 50 species of organisms, which differ in composition according to reproductive stages and exposure to several factors, including antibiotics and spermicides. Infections are very common with > 300 million cases of urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, and yeast vaginitis worldwide per annum. At the time of infection in the bladder and vagina, the urogenital flora is often dominated by the infecting pathogens, in contrast with healthy phases when indigenous organisms dominate. Premenopausal women have a flora of mostly lactobacilli, and certain properties of these strains, including adhesive ability and production of acids, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, and biosurfactants, appear important in conferring protection to the host. Efforts to artificially restore an unbalanced flora with the use of probiotics have met with mixed results but research aimed at selecting scientifically based strains could well provide a reliable alternative treatment and preventive regimen to antibiotics in the future.
Record 3 of 8 in SilverPlatter MEDLINE(R) (2001/01-2001/10)
TI: Vaginal bacterial microflora modifications during the growth of healthy cows.
AU: Otero,-C; Saavedra,-L; Silva-de-Ruiz,-C; Wilde,-O; Holgado,-A-R; Nader-Macias,-M-E
SO: Lett-Appl-Microbiol. 2000 Sep; 31(3): 251-4
AB: The aim of this work was first, to determine the predominant groups capable of colonizing the vagina and maintaining high numbers with time. The normal microbial flora of the cow's vagina and its evolution from weaning to service was then studied using standard microbiological methods. The results show that the most dominant bacteria belong to the streptococci, followed by the staphylococci, with similar levels during the whole study period. Enterobacteriaceae and lactobacilli were present at very low levels, the latter increasing during the cow's growth, suggesting some kind of hormonal influence. The results will allow the selection of micro-organisms with probiotic characteristics, classified as GRAS (Generally Regarded as Safe), to be used in the prevention of infections in the vaginal tract of cows, such as metritis, which produces delayed periods between partum and conception, and consequent economic losses.
Record 4 of 8 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects on animal and human health.
AU: Grizard,-D; Barthomeuf,-C
SO: Reprod-Nutr-Dev. 1999 Sep-Dec; 39(5-6): 563-88
AB: Prebiotic agents are food ingredients that are potentially beneficial to the health of consumers. The main commercial prebiotic agents consist of oligosaccharides and dietary fibres (mainly inulin). They are essentially obtained by one of three processes: 1) the direct extraction of natural polysaccharides from plants; 2) the controlled hydrolysis of such natural polysaccharides; 3) enzymatic synthesis, using hydrolases and/or glycosyl transferases. Both of these enzyme types catalyse transglycosylation reactions, allowing synthesis of small molecular weight synthetic oligosaccharides from mono- and disaccharides. Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references. Prebiotics escape enzymatic digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and enter the caecum without change to their structure. None are excreted in the stools, indicating that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), L-lactate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. By stimulating bifidobacteria, they may have the following implications for health: 1) potential protective effects against colorectal cancer and infectious bowel diseases by inhibiting putrefactive bacteria (Clostridium perfringens ) and pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Shigella ), respectively; 2) improvement of glucid and lipid metabolisms; 3) fibre-like properties by decreasing the renal nitrogen excretion; 4) improvement in the bioavailability of essential minerals; and 5) low cariogenic factor. These potential beneficial effects have been largely studied in animals but have not really been proven in humans. The development of a second generation of oligosaccharides and the putative implication of a complex bacterial trophic chain in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also discussed.
Record 5 of 8 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Potential preventive strategies and therapies in urinary tract infection.
SO: World-J-Urol. 1999 Dec; 17(6): 359-63
AB: There are perhaps five strategies either presently advocated or under investigation for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI): antibiotics, including natural peptides; functional foods; vaccines; probiotics; and miscellaneous, including avoidance of spermicides and maintenance of good hygiene. It is not possible to state the proportion of patients using antibiotics versus foods such as cranberry or using alternative approaches such as avoidance of spermicides. The majority of women who are referred to specialists will be prescribed long-term, low-dose antibiotics. However, given the magnitude of the problem, it is safe to state that large numbers of women are at least experimenting with alternative remedies such as drinking of cranberry juice or ingestion of herbal remedies with a view to enhancing their immune response. Vaccine development remains a long way from human use and has yet to be developed for organisms other than Escherichia coli. The use of probiotics of restore the normal vaginal flora and provide a competitive bacterial barrier to pathogens is close to becoming available as an alternative preventive approach. The next decade should see the introduction of new methods for reduction of the high incidence of UTI and better management of recurring urogenital infections.
Record 6 of 8 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Growth, development and differentiation: a functional food science approach.
AU: Koletzko,-B; Aggett,-P-J; Bindels,-J-G; Bung,-P; Ferre,-P; Gil,-A; Lentze,-M-J; Roberfroid,-M; Strobel,-S
SO: Br-J-Nutr. 1998 Aug; 80 Suppl 1S5-45
AB: Few other aspects of food supply and metabolism are of greater biological importance than the feeding of mothers during pregnancy and lactation, and of their infants and young children. Nutritional factors during early development not only have short-term effects on growth, body composition and body functions but also exert long-term effects on health, disease and mortality risks in adulthood, as well as development of neural functions and behaviour, a phenomenon called 'metabolic programming'. The interaction of nutrients and gene expression may form the basis of many of these programming effects and needs to be investigated in more detail. The relation between availability of food ingredients and cell and tissue differentiation and its possible uses for promoting health and development requires further exploration. The course of pregnancy, childbirth and lactation as well as human milk composition and the short- and long-term outcome of the child are influenced by the intake of foods and particularly micronutrients, e.g. polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fe, Zn and I. Folic acid supplementation from before conception through the first weeks of pregnancy can markedly reduce the occurrence of severe embryonic malformations; other potential benefits of modulating nutrient supply on maternal and child health should be further evaluated. The evaluation of dietary effects on child growth requires epidemiological and field studies as well as evaluation of specific cell and tissue growth. Novel substrates, growth factors and conditionally essential nutrients (e.g. growth factors, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids) may be potentially useful as ingredients in functional foods and need to be assessed carefully. Intestinal growth, maturation, and adaptation as well as long-term function may be influenced by food ingredients such as oligosaccharides, gangliosides, high-molecular-mass glycoproteins, bile salt-activated lipase, pre- and probiotics. There are indications for some beneficial effects of functional foods on the developing immune response, for example induced by antioxidant vitamins, trace elements, fatty acids, arginine, nucleotides, and altered antigen contents in infant foods. Peak bone mass at the end of adolescence can be increased by dietary means, which is expected to be of long-term importance for the prevention of osteoporosis at older ages. Future studies should be directed to the combined effects of Ca and other constituents of growing bone, such as P, Mg and Zn, as well as vitamins D and K, and the trace elements F and B. Pregnancy and the first postnatal months are critical time periods for the growth and development of the human nervous system, processes for which adequate substrate supplies are essential. Early diet seems to have long-term effects on sensory and cognitive abilities as well as behaviour. The potential beneficial effects of a balanced supply of nutrients such as I, Fe, Zn and polyunsaturated fatty acids should be further evaluated. Possible long-term effects of early exposure to tastes and flavours on later food choice preferences may have a major impact on public health and need to be further elucidated. The use of biotechnology and recombinant techniques may offer the opportunity to include various bioactive substances in special dietary products, such as human milk proteins, peptides, growth factors, which may have beneficial physiological effects, particularly in infancy and early childhood.
Record 7 of 8 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1993-1994)
TI: Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract.
SO: FEMS-Immunol-Med-Microbiol. 1993 Apr; 6(4): 251-64
Record 8 of 8 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1990-1992)
TI: Is there a role for lactobacilli in prevention of urogenital and intestinal infections?
AU: Reid,-G; Bruce,-A-W; McGroarty,-J-A; Cheng,-K-J; Costerton,-J-W
SO: Clin-Microbiol-Rev. 1990 Oct; 3(4): 335-44
AB: This review describes the importance of microbial adhesion in the ecology of the urogenital and intestinal tracts and the influence of host and microbial factors in bacterial interference. In a recent revival of interest in bacterial interference, lactobacillus administration has been studied as a means of treating and preventing disease. Although evidence is conflicting, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to be involved in beneficial antagonistic and cooperative reactions that interfere with establishment of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms of action are believed to involve competitive exclusion and production of inhibitory substances, including bacteriocins. These characteristics, as well as demonstrated adherence abilities in vitro, led to selection of certain Lactobacillus strains for clinical studies of cystitis. Weekly intravaginal Lactobacillus therapy reduced the recurrence rate of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in women. Use of Lactobacillus strains resistant to Nonoxynol-9, a spermicide that kills members of the protective normal vaginal flora, may have potential for use in women with recurrent cystitis using this contraceptive agent. In veterinary studies, bacterial interference by administration of probiotics has also been beneficial in disease prevention in animals. Carefully selected bacterial mixtures integrate with the gastrointestinal flora of the animals and can confer disease resistance and improve physiological function. Additional human and animal trials are needed to determine the practical, long-term usefulness of bacterial interference as a protective mechanism against infectious diseases.